Communication based on quantum key distribution some day will allow, , that we all communicate with each other in an “ultra-safe” way. The first steps towards the quantum computer and its communication system have been already taken.
The microscopic world
In the last 10 years, we have gained access to a new world; a place where laws are different from what we are used to. That is the microscopic world. When we immerse ourselves in the environment of the smallest of things, those we can not even see, it turns out that extraordinary things are happening.
If we look at everything that surrounds us, we will possibly find a diversity of objects and people. What we can not see with our own eyes, are the millions of particles that make up the microscopic world.
To get an idea, in a radius of 2 meters from the point where we find ourselves, there could be an amount of atoms close to the figure of 10 raised to 30; an amount higher than all the grains of sand of all the beaches of Spain.
Max Planck invented the theory of quantum physics in 1900 when trying to explain the behavior of light.
What happens when we isolate an atom?
When we manage to isolate an atom from the rest, we can observe very special and extraordinary behaviors; so much that it looks magic. An atom that is in a specific place, can disappear and appear in another distant place without moving from one place to the other.
Do different realities happen simultaneously?
According to quantum physics, we can say yes. In the microscopic world, when we manage to have these atoms isolated, somehow the life of an atom unfolds; this atom could be doing one thing in this universe, and somehow, another completely different in other universes. Therefore, that atom could be doing many things at once. It seems incredible but, nowadays, these experiments are done every day in laboratories around the world.
Einstein was concerned that quantum physics deals with probabilities rather than exact predictions. Hence if famous phrase: “God does not play dice”.
A quantum computer is a computer made according to quantum laws. That is, giving a particle the power of doing many things at once. Thus, when we start to have many particles, they could do as many things as the whole universe would do in a classic computer.
As the computer transformation that gave life to the computers and computer systems we know today did 50-60 years ago, we will see how these quantum computers lead to a similar revolution in about 20-30 years.
What would a quantum computer be able of?
First of all, calculations could be made that nowadays are impossible in any other machine (cartography, design of materials, design of molecules …). We speak of computers 100 million times faster than a conventional computer.
Within the world of Communication
Quantum physics allows the information attached to an object to disappear, and appear in another object in another place. That is, a bit of information (a 1 or a 0) disappears, and without making any route, appear elsewhere.
For this to be possible, the creation of a quantum communication system through a ‘quantum Internet’ is being investigated. This will allow sending messages without the risk of anyone being able to infect them. In addition, communication would be much more efficient; since we could give more information sending less particles.